Requalification of the minimum housing area. Oristano
Special mention for the project presented for the originality of the proposal and careful reinterpretation of the original aspects of the area
The term "mesu" in sardinian language means "in the middle", to be inside something that does not belong to you or that it adheres like a skin to the muscles that in turn are bound to the skeleton in an indissoluble manner. In this context, the idea is to create a market that creeps into spaces, between buildings, in the square and alleys of the historic district called "on Brugu", or that part of urban agglomeration, developed in Oristano in the fifties .
The mobility system.
The design proposal foresees the upgrading of the urban area by inserting within it the neighborhood market that is currently taking place two days a week on the road and precisely along the Aristana Street. The presence of "stalls" made up by the walkers causes criticality of the mobility of the entire area. For this reason, the initial approach was to make a roundabout in order to streamline vehicle traffic more neatly by reorganizing and optimizing road axes and parkings along the sidewalks, as well as the project address indicated in the call. The roundabout is located as the terminal of the Palmas, Iglesias and Arborea paths, so that vehicles are slowed down at the project area, and the road that is part of Via Caprera to the perimeter of intervention has been incorporated, transforming it into passage and Connecting between South and North and widening it to form a public space. In this system it is the design choice to create a basement parking of such dimensions as to absorb the load of urban standards, with reference to the parking lots, which result from the construction of the volumes for the tertiary and the residential. The surface of the basement has been deliberately reduced to the strict minimum necessary for either not having too much impact on the intervention, reducing construction costs or, in the case of landing, may be significant in the overall economy of the work. Another aspect is that parking will not yield revenue in economic terms, as it has been suggested that it is intended solely for the residences of the social housing and commercial customers, since the area that is accessible to neighboring citizens in a direct way is difficult Think of a large influx of vehicles; While in case of special events or neighborhood parties where the presence of people can be elevated, parking is definitely an important and decisive factor. The access to the parking lot is located on Via Iglesias and is secured by a ramp mounted on the six - storey building block. The exit is symmetrically positioned along the longitudinal axis of the area on Via Sant'Antioco, from Parking the vertical access to the square is guaranteed by a staircase with an attached elevator. Pedestrian walkway has been developed throughout the area, even with the presence of the market, in fact the elimination of the existing road dividing the lot into two has led to making the perimeter not crossable except on foot, Vehicles are guaranteed by removable bumpers or urban furnishing items. The internal paths are identified by structural elements, such as the covered shelter joining the two extremities of the square, characterized by a steel supporting portal frame, joined by steel cables, in which there are inserted the ground elements and colored recovery materials . The pavements of the inner streets are characterized by a double pavement treatment, depending on the different use of the spaces. Paved surfaces have been provided using permeable and drainage materials made of pebbles and local stone. At the sides of the lot on opposite sides there are two squares, made to respect the separation between the large building (ex IACP) and the new factory buildings.
The settlement system.
The urban fabric of the district is made up of modest buildings and heights of the building which rarely exceed the two floors, some exceptions are on Via Sant'Antioco and the most obvious of the large six-storey building of public ownership (former IACP ) To which the new volumes must contend. In the development of new buildings, intended partly for residential social housing and partly for commercial activities as well as spaces for social activities to complete the urban layout of the district, the building typologies of the historic centers belonging to Campidano Simaxis were considered. It is derived from an extroverted urban landscape, governed by the windowed facade of public spaces, a predominantly linear and non-labyrinthic structure of the urban plot, where the buildings stretch and move along paths that flow into an inner square, Which turns into the back court. The volumes built to be used for social housing are developed on two levels, on the ground floor there are commercial and upstairs houses, the heights are 7.5 meters and the roofs are two-sided on the axis North South. The buildings face the streets of Iglesias and Sant'Antioco to stretch out to the public public space to stop at the roundabout and the six-story building, respecting the detachment of ten meters. Buildings are arranged along the imaginary lines that move from a Side to the other side of the border, there are porticoes along the pedestrian paths and the facades of the upper floors are facing the square and on the road also through balconies and small terraces. The buildings are horizontally connected by "bridges" that can accommodate the environments of the residences or be covered terraces for exclusive use; on the inside there are sunbeds attached to the buildings. Vertical communication is ensured by unique ramp staircases that connect the top floor plan to the top they can serve single units or two units each. Moving to the roundabout, a building encircles the perimeter to the west border of the lot, it develops on two levels and inside there are public spaces, commercial spaces on the square of the square, while on the upper level there are offices. The solution is that of an alternation between public space (street), private (factory body) with internal courtyard and public square, the sequence is so overturned on the opposite side by reproposing the sequence
The co-housing community.
Housing units for social housing are provided in different areas to meet the needs of large families or those of young couples. The establishment of families in low-income housing provides for a community project through the acceptance of a regulation and the formation of a cooperative that carries out public and private building maintenance activities and which manages neighborhood services. The goal is to promote the birth of a community that can not only inhabit the neighborhood but live and animate constructively the entire area around the project. The "condominium" is based on the principles of multiculturalism, proximity and environmental sustainability. Living in co-housing means accepting ethical and social goals set out in the regulation and participating actively in community life. Some municipal advisors will assist the creation and development of the cooperative with particular attention to the economic and administrative aspects of entrepreneurship. In particular, they will be promoted and developed through the assistance of specialized operators nursery, afternoon and evening language classes, arts and crafts, organization and social events for young and old. The arts and crafts school will be closely linked to the artisanal activities related to the conservation and development of Sardinian tradition and, in particular, the Oristano. The business area is comprised of stores that are large enough to meet the needs of food and neighborhood services but also want to encourage, in particular, the preservation and development of Sardinian local tradition. There are plans to develop sculpture and woodworking workshops, quarry stone processing such as obsidian stone, leather processing, fine textile processing, re-design of nuragic clothing, sale of special local gourmet products. These activities will be linked to neighboring schools and will promote workshops and seminars, attracting people and particularly tourists interested in specialized and unique products. The showcases are sized like that of a craft shop exalted by the treatment of clay and lime plaster for those on the street fronts, while for the shops inside the square the greenhouses serve as showcases for displaying the products . The public office building forms a fifth between the square and the building of the Social Housing, it is built on two levels with its front on the side of the public porch space.
Public spaces of social aggregation and the market. While the piazza in the tradition of places is not identified as a true public space, but is subordinate to the needs of the farmhouse, in this context it is necessary to recapture the function of the center as a fulcrum and container of public functions such as church, commune, School or otherwise turns into "weekly market". So the Sardinian term practices (lat. Platea), which mostly means the courtyard of the private home and secondarily the square in the normal Italian term, so in practice it means "in the courtyard" rather than "in the square". And so "in the middle" of the square and the courtyard is the fragmented market, scattered or even "widespread" as an appendage of the house, what was the shelter for the tools is now the fruit grove, the cellar attached to the house Now becomes the fisherman's bench displaying its product, the barn is the seller of typical products of Sardinian tradition. So the market, in the two days of the week, is located in the alleyways, in the main square next to the boundaries of the area, with its stalls and the buzz of the customers making the place "alive" with a size attributable to that of the back court, Strong sign of this territory, and then disappear away by giving way to other activities and other uses. Specifically, the seats foreseen in the project for pedestrians are 50, as indicated in the Call, meeting the need of the body promoting the decongestion of the streets where banks are still present. Areas of 20 sqm were planned. For exclusive use for parking, and an additional frontal space of 24 square meters. For the rest of the clients, it is thus an area of 44 square meters. The paths are characterized by the gates between the buildings, the porticoes from the central roof that develops longitudinally between the two volumes. The benches are arranged in a homogeneous way between the built-in open spaces and the internal paths between the buildings, mixing them with their shingle roofs and colored coverings. The layout of the stalls layout is predefined and well-identified according to the type of product
Technological equipment facilities
The design aspect is addressed in the design proposal using architectural solutions that integrate the membrane by implanting the constituent element of the plant, and attention has also been paid to the use of alternative energy sources such as photovoltaic and cogeneration . Photovoltaic roofs will be realized with the use of high efficiency panels made of polycrystalline solar cells, the surface area of about 500 square meters. Estimated will be a real power plant for the use of the buildings built up and the needs of the electrical consumption of the entire work. The use of cogeneration requires a gas distribution network in the area concerned, and research is being carried out in the province of Oristano and throughout Sardinia as a major investment for the next few years with the aim of developing the methanization network and its use. In this context, a cogeneration plant is an ideal tool to reduce energy-related costs by making the investment and the most cost fully recoverable. As far as the air conditioning system is concerned, a centralized heat pump system powered by electricity or methane gas will be used, thus achieving very high yields. The placement of these plants is located in the basement area where a dedicated space will be provided, managed autonomously and without interference with the activities placed on the surface, but above all will be concealed to the view and integrated within the volume of the parking lot . Much attention has been paid to the recovery and reuse of rainwater, made by a rainfall conveying system, resulting from meteoric precipitation, on roofs of buildings in underground reservoirs, and subsequently by immersion pumps are used to integrate l 'Irrigation system of flower beds and green spaces. Residential and commercial air conditioning systems are operated by using low temperature water produced by heat pump systems, to enhance the efficiency of the machines, the fluid flows into drowned pipes in floor screeds and / or false ceilings Of the business premises, providing warmth to the environments uniformly, accentuating the interior comfort. In order to complete the integration of the air conditioning system, it is also planned to install solar panels and any storage tanks for the production of hot water or alternatively with the only heat exchanger function. Project Addresses on Material Design and Construction Techniques As mentioned in the previous paragraphs, the orientation of materials choice is to prefer finite artifacts of surrounding sites as well as the use of constructive techniques that are typical of Sardinian tradition. Different materials have been chosen for the flooring: for pedestrian areas a gravel-treated treatment with colored concrete in the porches has been used for the use of broken stone in the local stone, while the pavement Drainers such as stabilized ground blades or dry bricks. For shading elements placed on the shelves, enamelled refractory refractory material was used, while the shading curtains of the stalls were conceived in colored cotton. For the facades of the residences, the use of lime plaster was preferred, such as the recall of the raw construction of the Campidano's architectural tradition. Always with reference to the tradition of these places, the use of construction techniques has been resumed, especially for the construction of wooden structures and the use of ventilated roofs.
Principles of bioclimatic.
The technological system present in the idea of the project is facilitated and is made even more efficient by the spatial characteristics and shape of the constructed, not only of the volumes present but also of the positioning of the alive species and especially in reference to the orientation of the hypothesized complex. The already well-established guidelines of bioclimatic technology, applied to urban architecture, can be synthesized in the identification of local climatic factors which are specifically the identification of the predominant winds, distance from the sea or lagoon, orography Of the land. The analysis was carried out in both summer and winter periods, studying the factors mentioned and exploiting their influence. During the summer, the need for shading public spaces is guaranteed by canopies along pedestrian paths made of ceramic elements, and in the installation of point guards in squares or open areas. In the building, the presence of porches and shading systems attenuates the irradiation factor and creates fresh air movements within the spaces. The generated movement is of two types vertically within the constructed, the other horizontal that occurs between the spaces of the crosses of the lot. The arrangement of rows of trees longitudinally placed between the two edges of the building further enhances the shading index, giving an additional contribution to the above-mentioned effect. In the winter period, the presence of the tree arrangement creates a barrier to the cold currents coming from the north and the hillsides, as well as in smaller quantities the contribution of the existing building facing the new volumes hypothesized. The presence of greenhouses in homes and commercial premises, which, among other things, also have a showcase function, always contribute to heating the air in the winter. We want to point out that the decrease of some degree of temperature of a built-up space or the absence of currents in an open space is perceived in terms of well-being positively by the users of the places, the alternation of these events in summer / winter periods The goal that was to be achieved in the intentions of the design idea.